Maintenance worker loosening bolt on pipe of machine, contributing to the labor KPIs maintenance teams want to track.

Tracking how maintenance staff spends their time throughout the day ensures complete, efficient maintenance work. Maintenance labor key performance indicators (KPIs) help organizations set benchmarks for productivity and performance. Read on to learn about common labor KPIs and how to track them with a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS).

Which Maintenance Labor KPIs are Important?

Organizations track different labor KPIs based on their size, industry, and maintenance goals. This article describes commonly used labor tracking metrics for maintenance departments. Note that many of these KPIs rely on the availability of accurate time tracking data, such as that stored in a CMMS.

Average Service Request Response Time

The formula for average service request response time in plain text.

Average Service Request Response Time is the average time it takes to respond to work requested on a service request. This metric measures how quickly the maintenance team responds to service requests, starting when the request is submitted until work towards solving the issue starts.

To calculate the average service request response time, take the sum of the response time—the total elapsed time between the service request times and their related work order start times and divide it by the number of service requests submitted in the reporting timeframe.

Keep in mind what unit of time is used in the calculation. If the response time value is in hours, the result will be in hours. To express hours as minutes (or minutes as hours), some conversions are required.

How to Interpret Average Service Request Response Time

There are multiple factors that come into play when analyzing average service request response time.

In some organizations, all service requests are immediately turned into work orders. Other organizations review incoming requests and prioritize them accordingly. In some cases, service request administrators may need to gather more information before work can begin.

These factors greatly impact how quickly the maintenance team responds, thereby affecting the average response time. When calculating this metric, you may wish to select a subset of service requests that are similar in priority or complexity.

A long (high) service request response time can mean there is a backlog of requests that are getting pushed to the backburner. However, a backlog may not be unusual because requests have to be balanced with important planned maintenance work and emergency maintenance. It can also mean that the maintenance team needs more information before they can begin work.

A short (low) response time is desirable, as it indicates adequate customer service. However, it is important to look at shorter response times in the context of the types of repairs requested. Employees are more likely to contact maintenance personnel directly for urgent issues, rather than submitting service requests.

Average Task Completion Time

The formula for Average Task Completion Time in plain text.

Average Task Completion Time is the average amount of time it takes to complete a maintenance task. It is used to estimate how long it will take to complete a specific maintenance task or work order if multiple tasks are required. To calculate the average task completion time, divide the total time required to complete the task by the number of times the task was performed during the reporting timeframe.

This KPI measures the maintenance team’s efficiency when performing a particular task. It can be used to estimate how long maintenance procedures or special projects will take, allowing maintenance managers to more effectively plan and schedule maintenance activities.

How to Interpret Average Task Completion Time

If the average task completion time rises over time, more investigation is needed to determine the cause. The next logical step is to compare the task completion time between employees to identify who might be causing the value to go up. It could be that task instructions are not clear enough or that additional training is needed.

If the average task completion time is lower over time and within a good range, it indicates technicians are skilled and informed enough to complete maintenance work in a timely manner. However, too short of an average task completion time may indicate that technicians are rushing through work and skipping steps.

Work Order Performance

The formula for work order performance in plain text.

Work Order Performance keeps track of how many work orders are completed by their due date. This metric is used to determine whether work orders are being completed on time. To calculate work order performance, divide the number of work orders completed by their due date by the number of completed work orders in the reporting timeframe; then multiply by 100 to express the value as a percentage.

How to Interpret Work Order Performance

A maintenance technician’s ability to complete work orders on time (by their due date) can be a measure of their performance. When it comes to work order performance, the higher the number, the better. A high value means technicians are able to complete work orders on time, most of the time. A lower value indicates work orders aren’t being completed by their due date. In this case, maintenance managers should look for patterns in which technicians have been assigned to the late work orders. If it is one particular employee or group of employees, that may be the root of the issue.

Employees are not always at fault when there is an undesirable work order performance value. If work orders are consistently late, management may be underestimating the amount of time needed to complete work orders. Another cause could be that the maintenance department is understaffed and not enough labor resources are available to complete work by the due date.

Wrench Time

The formula for Wrench Time in plain text.

Be aware that tracking true wrench hours requires granular, consistent, and accurate time tracking. There are many methods of measuring wrench hours, each with varying amounts of accuracy. Therefore, wrench time remains a controversial metric in the maintenance industry. The decision whether to use wrench time as a maintenance labor KPI is up to your organization.

Wrench Time measures how much of a maintenance technician’s time is spent performing manual maintenance work. It doesn’t include time spent traveling to the asset, retrieving inventory parts from the stock room, reviewing maintenance history, and other tasks that don’t involve physically repairing an asset. To calculate wrench time, divide wrench hours by total working hours, then multiply by 100 to find the value as a percentage.

How to Interpret Wrench Time

Wrench time values can be tricky to interpret, even deceiving. It’s vital to remember that wrench time represents a small portion of someone’s day. The average wrench time for most organizations is between 25%-35%. For the purposes of this discussion, high or low wrench time means that wrench times are outside of this range.

Low wrench time may have many possible causes. One is that a technician may not be performing up to their true potential. Not all non-wrench time is wasted time; however, consistently low wrench time may be an indication that employees are spending too much time doing things that are not adding value towards the organization as a whole or towards completing maintenance tasks. Other causes of low wrench time may be related to poor maintenance planning and scheduling, assets not being ready for planned maintenance, unexpected emergency or corrective maintenance events, or waiting for parts and tools to become available.

If wrench time is high, that is generally positive, however, values that seem too good to be true are cause for concern. Depending on how wrench hours are recorded, it is easy for wrench time hours to become inflated. For example, some experts estimate that world class wrench time is 55%.

Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) is the average time it takes to repair an asset. This metric covers the time a technician is actively working on solving the issue, including travel time to the asset, troubleshooting, performing the repair, and testing the solution. Though typically used as an asset management KPI, the efficiency and effectiveness of labor resources impacts the value of MTTR. To calculate MTTR, divide the sum of repair time (usually in hours) by the number of repairs in the reporting timeframe. Note that MTTR is calculated per asset or asset class.

How to Interpret Mean Time to Repair

Interpreting MTTR can be tricky because the number will rise and fall based on the types of repairs that were done during the period calculated. Therefore, it is best practice to calculate MTTR by the type of repair performed on an asset or asset class. It is used to predict how long an asset will be unavailable.

If MTTR trends higher over time, which means it is taking longer to repair an asset, the next step is to investigate who is performing the repair. Doing so helps you identify which technician is responsible for the undesirable MTTR and why. For example, the technician may not have the correct skills for making the repair efficiently.

If MTTR trends lower over time, more investigation is required. It could be possible that a less-skilled technician is performing repairs at a slower rate, which is increasing downtime.

However, it is important to look at MTTR in context with other information about the asset or maintenance process. For example, aging assets take longer to repair than newer ones. Unavailable parts will cause long delays in maintenance work. Staffing shortages or an asset’s lack of availability to maintenance can cause more critical, complex, and lengthy repairs.

How are Maintenance-Related Labor KPIs Tracked?

Maintenance-related labor KPIs are tracked with different functions of CMMS software.

User Interface

The user interface in a CMMS displays information that can be used to construct labor KPIs. Depending on how the specific system works, modules may display different information based on which user is logged in and their role (administrator, maintenance manager, or maintenance technician) and their permissions.

Customized Dashboards

Customized dashboards in CMMS software are another way organizations can monitor and track labor KPIs. Dashboards can be created to display labor-related metrics as described earlier in this article. As new data is entered into the system, dashboards refresh to provide real-time, up-to-the-minute data.

Maintenance Reports

The last and most comprehensive way of tracking KPIs is by running maintenance reports. Many CMMS software solutions offer built-in reports for tracking labor performance. Some systems allow users to build custom reports, which are able to compare virtually any number of data points.

How Can CMMS Software Help Improve Labor KPIs?

CMMS software provides a platform for collecting maintenance performance data that can be used to track labor KPIs and improve employee productivity. A CMMS makes it easy to track service requests and work order performance, including labor hours. This data can be used to calculate labor KPIs that can be displayed in dashboards or exported in reports. Based on analysis, maintenance managers can adjust maintenance schedules, tasks, labor assignments, and more in a matter of clicks. Changes are reflected throughout the system, so changes only need to be made once.

CMMS software also allows organizations to drill down to view performance data at the employee level. This helps maintenance managers identify high performers and those who might be struggling and need additional support. Having quick access to this information allows for better labor resource management and more efficient, effective maintenance.

Track Maintenance Labor and Other KPIs with FTMaintenance Select

FTMaintenance Select helps your maintenance team track labor KPIs. Our software centralizes data so that you can run reports, including labor-related reports, and track other key aspects of your maintenance operation. Request a demo today to learn more.

See FTMaintenance In Action

Schedule your live demonstration of FTMaintenance CMMS today

Schedule Demo